Shoulder References & Readings

The following is a list of references and articles used and referred to in my Shoulder Workshops. Participants may wish to follow up on these or instead get a life. Be sure to scroll to the final section with several interesting articles on conservative Vs surgical management of cuff tears.

Allingham C 1988  Impingement syndrome of the shoulder – assessment and management.  In: Current Concepts in the Management of Shoulder Region Dysfunction.  Manipulative Therapists Association of Australia, Sydney, p99-107
Allingham C 1990  Exercise prescription in shoulder rehabilitation.  In:  The Shoulder in Focus (Proceedings),  Manipulative Physiotherapists Association of Australia, Melbourne, p21
Allingham C 1995 Regional Considerations – The Shoulder, In: Zuluaga M. et al (Eds), Sports Physiotherapy – applied science and practice, Churchill-Livingstone, Melbourne
Allingham, C.  1995,  Principles of management.  In:  Sports Physiotherapy – Applied Science and Practice, Zuluaga, M, et al (Eds), Churchill Livingstone, Melbourne.
Barth JRH, Burkhart SS, De Beer JF. The bear-hug test: A new and sensitive test for diagnosing a subscapularis tear. Arthroscopy. 2006;22:1076-1084.
Black K, Lombardo J  1990  Suprascapular nerve injuries with isolated paralysis of the infraspinatus.  American Journal of Sports Medicine 18(3):225-228
Boettcher C, Cathie I, Ginn K. 2010 The role of shoulder muscles is task specific. J Sci & Med Sport 13(6):651-656
Bowen M, Warren R  1991  Ligamentous control of shoulder stability based on selective cutting and static translation experiments.  In:  Basic Science and Clinical Application in the Athlete’s Shoulder, Hawkins R (Ed), Clinics in Sports Medicine  10(4):757-782
Carpenter J, Blasier R, Pellizzon G  1998.  The effects of muscle fatigue on shoulder joint position sense.  Am J of Sports Medicine  26(2):262-265
Chen S, Simonian P, Wickiewicz T, Otis J, Warren R  1999  Radiiographic evaluation of glenohumeral kinematics: A muscle fatigue model.  Journal of Shoulder & Elbow Surgery  8(1):4952
Clark M,  & Harryman D. 1992. Tendons, ligaments and capsule of the rotator cuff.  J Bone Joint Surg. 74A:713-725
Codman E  1934   The shoulder.  Krieger, Malabar
Curwin S, Stanish D  1984  Tendinitis: its etiology and treatment.  Collamore Press, Toronto
Duchateau J., Le Bozed, S. & Hainaut, K. 1986, Contributions of slow and fast muscles of triceps surae to a cyclic movement.  European Journal of Applied Physiology, 55, 476-81.
Ferrari D 1990  Capsular ligaments of the shoulder.  Anatomical and functional study of the anterior superior capsule.  American Journal of Sports Medicine 18(1):20-24
Gagey O & Gagey N  2001  The hyperabduction test  Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery, 83-B(1):6974
Gerber C, Kushell R. 1991  Isolated rupture of the subscapularis muscle. Clinical features in 16 cases. JBJS 73-B(3):389-394
Gerber C, Terrier F, Ganz R  1985  The role of the coracoid process in the chronic impingement syndrome.  Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 67-A:703
Ginn K. & Cohen M. 2005 Exercise therapy for shoulder pain aimed at restoring neuromuscular control: A randomized comparative clinical trial. J Rehabil Med (37:115-122
Greis P, Kuhn J, Schultheis J, Hintermeister R, Hawkins R. 1996.  Validation of the Lift-Off test and analysis of subscapularis activity during maximal internal rotation.  Am J Sports Med. 24(5):589
Hayes K., Ginn, G, Walton J, Szomaor Z & Murrell G. 2004 A randomised clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of physiotherapy after rotator cuff repair. Aust J Physio 50:77-83
Hawkins R, Hobeika P  1983  Impingement syndrome in the athletic shoulder.  Clinics in Sports Medicine 2(2):391-401
Hawkins R, Kennedy J 1980  Impingement syndromes in athletes.  American Journal of Sports Medicine 8:151
Irlenbusch U, & Gansen H. 2003 Muscle biopsy investigations on neuromuscular insufficiency of the rotator cuff: A contribution to the functional impingement of the shoulder joint. J Sh Elb Surg 12(5):422-426
Jenp T, Malanga G, Gowney E, An K. 1996. Activation of the rotator cuff in generating isometric shoulder rotation.  Am J Sports Med. 24(4):477
Jensen B.R., Lausen B. and Sjogaard G. 2000. Aspects of shoulder function in relation to exposure demands and fatigue – a mini review. Clin Biomech 215(S1): S17-S20
Jia X,  Petersen S, Khosravi A, Almareddi V, Pannirselvam V, McFarland G 2009. Examination of the shoulder: the past, the present and future. JBJS Am. 91: Suppl 6:10-8
Jobe F, Moynes D 1982  Delineation of diagnostic criteria and a rehabilitation program for rotator cuff injuries.  American Journal of Sports Medicine 10(6):336-339
Kelly B, Kadrmas W, Speer K.  1996.  The manual muscle examination for rotator cuff strength: an electromyographical investigation.  Am J Sports Med. 24(5):581
Kibler B, Ludewig P, McClure P, Uly, T, Sciascia A. 2009. Scapular Summit 2009.  J Ortho Sp Phys Ther 39(11):A1-A13
Lephart S, Warner J, Borsa P, Fu F. 1994.  Proprioception of the shoulder joint in healthy, unstable and surgically repaired shoulders.  J Shoulder Elbow Surg 3(6):371-380
Lindman R., Eriksson A. and Thornell L-E. 2005. Fibre type composition of the human male trapeziums muscle: Enzyme-histochemical characteristics. Am J Anat 189(3):236-244
Lo I, Nonweiler b, woolfrey M, Litchfield R, Kirkley A. 2004.  An evaluation of the Apprehension, Relocation and Surprise tests for anterior shoulder instability.  American Journal of Sports Medicine 32(2):301-307
Liu H, Henry M, Stephen N,  1996  A prospective evaluation of a new physical examination in predicting glenoid labral tears.   American Journal of Sports Medicine 24(6):721-725
Lui S, Henry M, Nuccion S, Shapiro M, Dorey F.  1996.  Diagnosis of glenoid labral tears: a comparison between magnetic resonance emaging and clinical examination.  Am J Sp Med 24(2):149
MacDougall J.D. Elder G.C., Sale D.G., Moroz J.R. and Sutton J.R 2004 Effects of strength training and immobilization on human muscle fibres. Eur J App Physio (43(1):25-34
Maffett M, Gartsman G, Moseley B.  1995.  Superior Labrum-biceps tendon complex lesions of the shoulder.  Am J Sports Med. 23(1):93
Matsen F, Harryman D, Sidles J  1991  Mechanics of glenohumeral instability.  In: Basic Science and Clinical Application in the Athlete’s Shoulder, Hawkins R (Ed), Clinics in Sports Med, 10(4):783-788
Matsuki K, Matsuki K.O, Yamaguchi S, Ochiai N, Sasho T, Sugaya H, Toyone T, Wada Y, Takahashi K, Banks S. 2012.  Dynamic In Vivo Glenohumeral Kinematics During Scapular Plane Abduction in Healthy Shoulders. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2012;42(2):96-104
McCarrick M.J. & Kemp J.G. 2000, The effect of strength training and reduced training on rotator cuff musculature. Clinical Biomechanics 15(1):S42-45
McConnell J  1990  A new approach to the problem shoulder.  In: The Shoulder In Focus (Proceedings), Manipulative Physiotherapists Association of Australia, Melbourne
McFarland E, Campbell G, McDowell J.  1996.  Posterior shoulder laxity in asymptomatic athletes.  Am J Sports Med. 24(4):468
Newnham R  1990  Frozen shoulder – adhesive capsulitis: periarthritis.  In: The Shoulder In Focus (Proceedings).  Manipulative Physiotherapists Association of Australia, Melbourne, p20
O’Brien S, Pagnani M, Fealy S, McGlynn S & Wilson J  1998.  The active compression test: A new and effective test for diagnosing labral tears and acromioclavicular joint abnormality.  Am J Sports Medicine 26(5):610-613
O’Connell P, Nuber G, Mileski R, Lautenshchlager E  1990  The contribution of the glenohumeral ligaments to anterior stability of the shoulder joint.  American Journal of Sports Medicine 18(6):579-584
Owens-Burkhart H  1987  Management of frozen shoulder.  In: Physical Therapy of the Shoulder, Donatelli R (Ed).  Churchill Livingstone, New York
Pagnani M, Deng X, Warren R, Torzilli P.  1993.  Effect of the long head of the biceps brachii on glenohumeral translation.  Presented at The Hospital for Special Surgery Fellows Research Symposium, New York, NY, August 1993
Pappas A, Goss T, Kleinman P  1983  Symptomatic shoulder instability due to lesions of the glenoid labrum.  American Journal of Sports Medicine 11(5):279-288
Pascoal A.G., Van Der Helm F.C.T., Correia P.P, and Carita I. 2000. Effects of different arm external loads on the scapulo-humeral rhythm. Clin Biomech 15(S1):S21-S24
Rathbun J, McNab I  1970  The microvasculature pattern of the rotator cuff.  Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 52-B:540
Rodeo S,  Suzuki K, Yamauchi M, Bhargava M & Warren R  1998.  Analysis of collagen and elastic fibres in shoulder capsule in patients with shoulder instability.  Am J Sports Med  26(5)634-643
Sale D., 1992  Neural adaptation to strength training.  In: Komi P (Ed), Strength and Power in Sport.  Blackwell Scientific, Oxford.
Sharkey N & Marder R, 1995  The rotator cuff opposes superior translation of the humeral head.  American J of Sports Medicine 23(3):270-275
Sharkey N,  Marder R, Hanson P. 1994.  The entire rotator cuff contributes to elevation of the arm.(Abstract)  J Orthop Res 12:699-708
Singh K, Melis E. Richmond F.J., and Scott S.H. 2002. Morphometry of Macaca mulatta forelimb II. Fiber-type composition in shoulder and elbow muscles. J of Morph 251:323-332
Soslowsky L, Flatow E, Biliani L & Mow V. 1992.  Articular geometry of the glenohumeral joint.  Clin Orthop 285:181-190
Speer K, Hannafin J, Altchek D, Warren R.  1994.  An evaluation of the shoulder relocation test.  Am J Sports Med. 22(2):177
Srinivasan R.C., Lungren M.P, Langenderfer L.E., and Hughes R.E. 2007 Fiber type composition and maximum shortening velocity of muscles crossing the human shoulder. Clin Anat.  20:144-149
Stetson WB, Templin K 2002, The Crank test, the O’Brien test, and routine magnetic resonance imaging scans in the diagmosis of labral tears.  American Journal of Sports Medicine, 30(6):806
Thompson W, Debski R, Boardman D, Taskiran E, Warner J, Fu F, Woo, S.  1996.  A biomechanical analysis of rotator cuff deficiency in a cadaveric model.  Am J Sp Med. 24(3):286
Tipton C.M., Vailas, A.C. & Mathes, R.D.  1986  Experimental studies on the influences of physical activity on ligaments, tendons and joints:  a brief review.  Acta Medica Scandinavia, (Supp 711), 157-68.
Tokish J, Decker, M, Ellis H, Torrry M, Hawkins R. 2003  The belly-press test for the physical examination of the subscapularis  muscle: Electromyographic validation and comparison to the lift-off test  J Sh & El Surg 12(5):427-430
Townsend H, Jobe F, Pink M, Perry J  1991  Electro-myographic analysis of the glenohumeral muscles during a baseball rehabilitation program.  American Journal of Sports Medicine 19(3):264-272
Turkel S, Panio M, Marshall J, Girgis F  1981  Stabilizing mechanisms preventing anterior dislocation of the glenohumeral joint.  Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 63-A(8):1208-1217
Voight M. & Klausen K. 1990. Changes in muscle strength and speed of an unloaded movement after various training programmes. Eur J App Physiol 60(5):370-376
Warner J, Bowen M, Geng X, Torzilli P, Warren R  1999   Effect of joint compression on inferior stability of the glenohumeral joint.  Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery 8(1):3136
Weiner D, McNab I  1970  Superior migration of the humeral head.  Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 52-B:524
Xiaofeng, Jia. Petersen S, Khosravi A, Almareddi V, Pannirselvam V, McFarland G 2009. Examination of the shoulder: the past, the present and future. JBJS Am. 91: Suppl 6:10-8

Recent material relating to cuff injury and recovery:

The longer in the sling after surgery the better the healing with no additional risk of stiffness (Parsons et al, J Shoulder Elbow Surg (2010) 19, 1034-1039)

13 year follow up of cuff tears managed conservatively found about 90% of patients had no or only slight pain, and 70% had no disturbance in daily life. Younger patients had more pain and disorder. (Kijimi et al, J Shoulder Elbow Surg (2012) 21, 491-494)

Massive cuff tears with signs of fatty infiltration of muscles, upward subluxation of humeral head, significant tendon retraction and (often) osteoarthritis don’t do well with surgery. (Gerber et al,  J Shoulder Elbow Surg (2011) 20, S20-S29)

The leading symptom for progressing to surgery after a period of conservative management is pain. (Djahangiri et al, J Shoulder Elbow Surg (2013) 22, 45-51)

Results vary widely, with between 58% and 72% of patients expressing satisfaction for a fair to excellent result with conservative management. Patients with an insurance claim were less likely to be satisfied (Clement et al. Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology 2012, 4:48)